Partein und Gewerkschaften in Bulgarien nach dem Sturz Živkovs (1989-1991)


  • Kiriakos D. Kentrotis


The years 1989-1991 constitute a period of proliferation and intense
activity for scores of parties, movements and citizens’ initiatives in Bulgaria.
The two general elections (June 1990 and October 1991) were indeed characterized
by utter fragmentation of the political spectrum into a vast variety
of parties and splinter groups, most of which, however, failed to secure a
place in parliament.
The principle political formation of the Right, the UDF, was split into
three groups, while its arch-rival, the BSP (former communist), maintained
a fair degree of support. In the end of 1991 Bulgaria still lacked a political
Centre, as the two middle-of-the-road Agrarian parties did not return a single deputy after the October 1991 elections. Of particular significance is the case
of the party of the Turkish minority, which seems to play the role of an arbiter
in Bulgarian politics.
The trade unions strove to rid themselves of the legacy of the communist
past, taking an active part in this period of transition to pluralist society and
parliamentary democracy in Bulgaria.